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Gas welding and cutting were perfected during this period as well. The production of oxygen and later the liquefying of air, along with the introduction of a blow pipe or torch in , helped the development of both welding and cutting. Before , hydrogen and coal gas were used with oxygen. However, in about a torch suitable for use with low-pressure acetylene was developed.

World War I brought a tremendous demand for armament production and welding was pressed into service. Many companies sprang up in America and in Europe to manufacture welding machines and electrodes to meet the requirements. Immediately after the war in , 20 members of the Wartime Welding Committee of the Emergency Fleet Corporation, under the leadership of Comfort Avery Adams, founded the American Welding Society as a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of welding and allied processes.

Alternating current was invented in by C.

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Holslag; however, it did not become popular until the s when the heavy-coated electrode found widespread use. In , automatic welding was introduced. It utilized bare electrode wire operated on direct current and used arc voltage as the basis of regulating the feed rate. Automatic welding was invented by P. Nobel of the General Electric Company. It was used to build up worn motor shafts and worn crane wheels. It was also used by the automobile industry to produce rear axle housings.

During the s, various types of welding electrodes were developed. There was considerable controversy during the s about the advantage of the heavy-coated rods versus light-coated rods. The heavy-coated electrodes, which were made by extruding, were developed by Langstroth and Wunder of the A. Smith Company and were used by that company in In , Lincoln Electric Company produced extruded electrode rods that were sold to the public. By , covered electrodes were widely used. Welding codes appeared that required higher-quality weld metal, which increased the use of covered electrodes.

During the s there was considerable research in shielding the arc and weld area by externally applied gases. The atmosphere of oxygen and nitrogen in contact with the molten weld metal caused brittle and sometimes porous welds. Research was done utilizing gas shielding techniques. Alexander and Langmuir did work in chambers using hydrogen as a welding atmosphere.

How to "Weld" Aluminum for Beginners

They utilized two electrodes, starting with carbon electrodes but later changing to tungsten electrodes. The hydrogen was changed to atomic hydrogen in the arc. It was then blown out of the arc forming an intensely hot flame of atomic hydrogen turning to the molecular form and liberating heat. This arc produced half again as much heat as an oxyacetylene flame. This became the atomic hydrogen welding process.

Atomic hydrogen never became popular but was used during the s and s for special applications of welding and later on for welding of tool steels. Hobart and P. Devers were doing similar work but using atmospheres of argon and helium. In their patents applied for in , arc welding utilizing gas supplied around the arc was a forerunner of the gas tungsten arc welding process. They also showed welding with a concentric nozzle and with the electrode being fed as a wire through the nozzle.

This was the forerunner of the gas metal arc welding process. These processes were developed much later. Stud welding was developed in at the New York Navy Yard, specifically for attaching wood decking over a metal surface. Stud welding became popular in the shipbuilding and construction industries. The automatic process that became popular was the submerged arc welding process.

This under powder or smothered arc welding process was developed by the National Tube Company for a pipe mill at McKeesport, Pennsylvania. It was designed to make the longitudinal seams in the pipe. The process was patented by Robinoff in and was later sold to Linde Air Products Company, where it was renamed Unionmelt welding. Submerged arc welding was used during the defense buildup in in shipyards and ordnance factories.

It is one of the most productive welding processes and remains popular today.

What is Fusion Welding? - TWI

Coffin to weld in a nonoxidizing gas atmosphere, which he patented in The concept was further refined in the late s by H. Hobart, who used helium for shielding, and P. Devers, who used argon. This process was ideal for welding magnesium and also for welding stainless and aluminum.

It was perfected in , patented by Meredith, and named Heliarc welding. It was later licensed to Linde Air Products, where the water-cooled torch was developed. Classification of manufacturing processes. Application of manufacturing processes.

Effect of manufacturing processes on properties of metals. Break-even point analysis in manufacturing processes. Metal Casting: Terminology. Metal Casting: Pattern allowances I.

Fusion welding

Metal Casting: Pattern allowances II. Metal Casting: Sand Moulding I.

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Metal Casting: Gating System. Metal Casting: Yield. Metal Casting: Riser Design. Metal Casting: Shell molding. Metal Casting: Investment and permanent mould casting. Metal working processes: Hot and cold working. Metal working processes: Forging. Metal working processes: Extrusion. Metal working processes: Wire Drawing. Metal working processes: Press.

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Metal working processing: Sheet metal operations II. Metal working processing: Sheet metal operations III. In carbon or tungsten TIG welding there are no molten droplets to be forced across the gap and onto the work.

Basic principles of welding

Filler metal is melted into the joint from a separate rod or wire. More of the heat developed by the arc is transferred to the weld pool with consumable electrodes. This produces higher thermal efficiencies and narrower heat-affected zones. Since there must be an ionized path to conduct electricity across a gap, the mere switching on of the welding current with an electrically cold electrode posed over it will not start the arc. The arc must be ignited. This is caused by either supplying an initial voltage high enough to cause a discharge or by touching the electrode to the work and then withdrawing it as the contact area becomes heated.

Arc welding may be done with direct current DC with the electrode either positive or negative or alternating current AC.


The choice of current and polarity depends on the process, the type of electrode, the arc atmosphere, and the metal being welded. View more Arc Welding Process and Theory articles. View Arc Welding How-To articles. View Arc Welding Solutions articles. Arc welding is one of several fusion processes for joining metals. By applying intense heat, metal at the joint between two parts is melted and caused to intermix - directly, or more commonly, with an intermediate molten filler metal. Upon cooling and solidification, a metallurgical bond is created.